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SEMANTICS

Page history last edited by Tri Marina Handayani 12 years, 9 months ago

 

SEMANTICS

 

It is the study of the relationship between the linguistics forms and entities in the world, that is, how words literally connect to things (meaning). It is a major branch of linguistics devoted to the study of meaning in language.

There are two subfields of semantics :

-         lexical semantics : concern with the meaning of words and the meaning relationships among words

-         sentential semantics : concerns with the meaning of syntactic units larger than the word

there 3 types of meaning :

  1. lexical meaning : the real meaning which is appropriate with our sense observation. Example : the upper body part of nose
  2. grammatical meaning : it appears as the causes of word function in sentences. Example : Mirna    hits     the man

                         actor    active  target

  1. contextual meaning : the meaning of single word in  one context of sentence

example : 3 x 4   it can means 12 or 5000 (based on the context place and object)

                12. if it is asked to the students at school

                                                   Object          place

                5000 . if it asked to the photographer at photo studio

                                                        Object                   place

 

referential meaning and non referential meaning

a. referential meaning is a meaning of word directly relates  with the references.

    e.g. horse,picture the word have referential meaning because they have references in real word.

b. non referential meaning is a meaning of word unrelates with the references.

    e.g. and, or => no refential meaning, they have no references.

denotative and conotative meaning

a. denotative meaning is the true meaning of word. in addition denotative meaning is often used by society.

     e.g. matanya bulat, bibirnya merah, etc.

b. conotative meaning is not the original meaning, so speaker must translete the original meaning, so that listener understand about what his mean.

     e.g. panjang tangan, it does not mean that the hand is long, but it demonstrates to people who likes stealing others' things.

associative meaning is a meaning of single word that has relationship with something others.

e.g.'white is identical with pure

       green is denoted as fresh or peace.

 

 

Affective and collocatieve meaning

  1. affective meaning shows reaction of listener using word or sentence

e.g. could you bring me salt, please! Compared to: bring the salt to me!

The 1st one is more polite than the last one.

  1. collocative meaning relates by using word in any particular situation on the same environment

e.g. synonym of cantik.=>(handsome/beautiful). However, we can not say agus d.p is beautiful, because in this case, agus d.p is man so that we must replace with handsome, beautiful is for women.

 

RELATIONS OF MEANING

 

1.Synonym

consists of same meaning

ex: start-begin, bodoh-dungu, next to-near, etc.

 

2.Antonym

the opposite meaning

ex: clever x stupid, high x low, big x small, etc.

 

3.Homonym

the similarity on sounds and written

ex: sanksi-sangsi

                  massa-masa

 

4.Homophones

sounds identical but are written differently

ex: site=tempat

     sight =penglihatan

 

5.Homograph

written identically but sound differently

ex:lead=timah

    lead= peranan,penting,petunjuk

 

6.Polisemy

a word which has two(or more) rated meanings

ex: kepala( bagian tubuh/instansi)

     teras(pejabat/bagian rumah

SEMATIC FEATURES

      Words maybe intersecting sematics classes. for example woman in the class of property "female";child in the class of young and girl is in the intersecting class with the two properties' female ' and 'young'. such relationship could be expressed in by semantics features, similar to phonetic features. in this case the lexical entries for word such as father, girl, and mare would have the following appearence:

woman         father      girl            mare

+female     +male     +female     +female

+human     +human     +human     -human

-young        +parent     +young     - young     etc...

 

     

Comments (17)

Dhian Widhi P said

at 8:33 am on Dec 24, 2008

sir, can u explain clearer about Affective meaning? I don't really understand with the example that u give.
"mampirlah ke gubuk kami" ???????????

Inda Rizqy said

at 8:42 pm on Dec 28, 2008

Good night,Sir...
I'm so sorry because I took my additional information in a wrong place..

Hehehe.. Please, forgive me, Sir.. Here is I put my contribution.

Contextual Meaning. It can be used in several context, for example :
1. Personal Context
2. Situation Context
3. Aim Context
4. Formal or Non-formal Context
5. Feeling Context
6. Time Context
7. Place Context
8. Object Context
9. Language Context

Thanks...

Bunt@r said

at 11:03 pm on Dec 28, 2008

mmh miss Rizqy, could you give us more explanation about the examples of contextual meaning? Maybe you can add examples from the explanation personal context and the other contexts to make them more clearly.
Please. . .

Bunt@r said

at 11:05 pm on Dec 28, 2008

mmh miss Rizqy, could you give us more explanation about the examples of contextual meaning? Maybe you can add examples from the explanation personal context and the other contexts to make them more clearly.
Please. . .

Bunt@r said

at 11:07 pm on Dec 28, 2008

mmh miss Rizqy, could you give us more explanation about the examples of contextual meaning? Maybe you can add examples from the explanation personal context and the other contexts to make them more clearly.
Please. . .

Indang Januri said

at 1:23 pm on Dec 30, 2008

Hi Mr.DP
i'm sorry i've just can sent you a little part of semantics, i want to ask you about linguistic lesson which is like a mathematics,i was trying to fing out the source of the problem why students affraid of this,my opinion is that linguistic is treated like formula on science which has to be revealed, and the pattern to learn is absolutely based on the book,even the examples that students shows to complete their theory, so far this was what i've found. do you mind to give us or at least me to learn lingustics in fun?i guess the way you taught us is better than the theory in books,maybe you have to make your own easier way of learning into a modul so we can have goo way in dealing with this lesson.
i'm sorry if my opinion is not appropriate.and thanks for your time.Adios
Indang

Inda Rizqy said

at 12:35 pm on Dec 31, 2008

I'll try to answer Widi's question...

"Gubuk" is a small building in the middle of rice field which made from bamboo. It is used by the farmer for taking a rest. In this context, "gubuk" has a same meaning with house. The speaker use this word to abase himself.


Thanks...

Septianingrum said

at 5:09 pm on Dec 31, 2008

Dear Widhi,
I wiil answer your question about the example of Affective meaning. It has posted by me 2 weeks ago. “Mampirlah ke gubuk kami.” In this case, the word ”gubuk” includes affective meaning, modest. Remind, Affective is the reaction that relates to listeners or readers after listening or reading something. Another example, when someone calls someone else “Monkey”. Of course, someone else will response it because:
- Someone will be sensitive if someone calls her or him “Monkey”.
- The word “Monkey” relates to sense.
- The word” Monkey” causes humiliation for someone.
Have you been satisfied with my explanation……….???

Septianingrum said

at 10:00 pm on Jan 3, 2009

Hello, Buntar………
I will try to answer your question about contextual meaning although you do not ask me to answer it.
Contextual meaning or situational meaning is caused by relating between statement and context.
It can be divided into:
a.Person context, relates to genre, age, social and economy background, education background, and the position of speakers.
For example: It is difficult for us if we hope that someone who graduates from elementary school understand about the word democracy.

b. Situational context, speakers must find the word which relates to the situation (Safe situation, noisy situation, sad situation, happy, etc.) for example: In grief situation, persons use the word which has sad meaning, pity, Not use the word that can make person who is leaved will sensitive. Person should not say “The dead person had debt to me”.

c. Aim context, speakers must find the word which has meaning suitable with the aim. For example: If someone wants to ask something to someone else, she / he should find the word which has the request or command meaning. Someone should say “Would you like to check my homework?” or “Do you mind to accompany me to Lina’s birthday tonight?”

d. Formal/Informal situation. For instance, there is student and teacher. Although They are aunt and nephew, At school nephew as a student must call his aunt as the teacher with “mom” to show formal situation. Then, outside the school, the student may call her teacher “aunt” because family relation. It shows informal situation.

e. Feeling context, Speaker’s feeling context can influence the word that caused the meaning too. For example: If someone angry with someone else, of course she or he will say “coward”.


















Septianingrum said

at 10:03 pm on Jan 3, 2009

f. Time context, for example: If university student meets his or her lecturer while the lecturer is so tired, of course the lecturer will refuse his or her student. The lecturer will says, “Meet me next time”.

g.Place context, speaker must understand where they are. For example: In school, when teacher asks her students, How is the result of 3 x 4? Absolutely, her students will answer 12. Then, If someone asks the same question to photographer, he will answer Rp.5.000,00 or more.

h. Object context, refers to focus in speaking. For instance: If someone asks Morphology in Linguistic learning, of course they will answer Morphology relates to the study of the forms of words. Then, If someone asks morphology in biology learning, they will answer Morphology is the study of the form and structure of animals and plants.

i. Complete of speak or listen’s equipment context,
For instance: The person whose unperfected articulation will pronounce the word not clear. It causes the opposite of the speaker does not understand the content of the sentence because the meaning of the word can not be understood.

j. Language context, any thing which relates to language will influence the meaning too. In writing, quotation mark and diction are very important. Then, In speaking, SUPRASEGMENTAL element is important. For instance: When someone says “Teacher”.
- Teacher? means Is he a teacher?,
- Teacher! means of course, she or he is a teacher.
Another example: Close
- Close? means in sentence does the shop close?,
- Close! means someone ask someone else to close the door or the window.




Bunt@r said

at 10:27 am on Jan 4, 2009

Miss. Ningrum, thank you very for your "very clearly explanation". It make me sure that students of non-regular program are smarter than students of regular program.
could you tell us where you find the resources for posting in our wiki? Actually I only learn linguistics from this wiki. It's very helpful if everybody add the resources in every post and answer.

Septianingrum said

at 5:13 pm on Jan 4, 2009

Hello, Buntar.............

Sorry, I forgot to give you the example of Complete of speak or listen’s equipment context:
The examples:

1. A: I'd like a big, red cotton shirt.

Septianingrum said

at 5:25 pm on Jan 4, 2009

Hello, Buntar.............

Sorry, I forgot to give you the example of Complete of speak or listen’s equipment context:
The examples:

1. A: I'd like a big, red cotton shirt.
B: Here you are. A big, red cotton skirt.
A: No, I said a big, red cotton shirt.
B: Here you are. A big, red nylon shirt.
A: No, I said a big, red cotton shirt.
B: Here you are. A big, blue cotton shirt.
A: No, I said a big, red cotton shirt.
B: Sorry, I haven’t got one.

2. A: It’s a pity you weren’t at the party.
B: I WAS at the party.
A: Did you say you were at the barbeque?
B: I was at the PARty.
A: Did you say Robert at the party?
B: I was at the party.


Sartika Dian said

at 4:54 am on Jan 6, 2009

Septianingrum...
Thank you,,,you did cool...but could you please give us the resources you recommended?

Ayu Nurwati said

at 1:21 pm on Jan 9, 2009

Good Afternoon sir,I have read a book about semantics.In there I found something that different with Septianingrum's explanation. It about reference, referent, tokens and type. I still confuse about the explanation of that book. Can you explain to me about that?

Septianingrum said

at 12:29 pm on Jan 11, 2009

To Buntar and Sartika:

Thank you so much for your exclamation. There are many books that can be referenced includes all of the books that Mr.DP’s recommended such as Linguistik Umum (Chaer,A), Pesona Bahasa (Kushartanti), Semiotika Sosial (Santoa,R.), Pengantar Linguistik (Verhaar,J) Language and Linguistics (George J), any kinds of Semantics by Mansoer Pateda. By the way, Linguistic learning is not only studied in English but also in other languages. So you can take any references in other languages. Most of the books can be found in Library. If it is not available, you must go to bookstore to find them. Good Luck……!!!

Septianingrum said

at 12:31 pm on Jan 11, 2009

@ Ayu Nurwati:

What book that you read difference with my explanation?

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