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Page history last edited by Agus D. Priyanto 12 years, 9 months ago


Early 1900 ferdinand de saussure founded structural linguistic. Before 20th Century, language in term comparison and no scientific approach.  There are two kinds of relation, relation of syntactical and paradigmatic relation.

Syntax is the study of the principles and rules for constructing sentences in natural languages. It is also used to refer directly to the rules and principles that govern the sentence structure of any individual language.

a. syntactic structure consist of 4 types, they are :

1. structure of predication

The component are subject and predicate.

Ex : I live in malang. I as subject, and live in malang as predicate.

2. structure of modification

The component are : head and modifier

Ex : the intelligent student. The intelligent student as modifier, and student as head.

3. structure of complementation

The component are : verb element and complement.

Ex: live in malang. Live as verb element, and in malang as complement.

4. structure of coordination.

The component is coordination

Ex: I live in malang and studying English. And as coordination.

Syntactic device

  1. word order is an important syntactic device. Each language has different rule regarded word order. the  example : the two diligent student from aceh living in the neigbourhood.
  2. derivational contrast tell us that a construction plus derivational mprpheme, make a new construction.Ex : the girl is happy, the girl laugh is happily.
  3. function word is a word that have little meaning, ex: he wanted to see you
  4. inflectional affixes affixes that are used to form inflected word. Ex : the students read the book. the student reads the book.
  5. prosody. Ex. a. stress : export - to export
    1.           b. pitch : you-you

      1. c. jucture : i scream - ice cream
      2. d. intination : where are you going.


In study of syntax we also study the ambiguity of sentence. There are two types of the ambiguity: lexical ambiguity and grammatical ambiguity .The lexical ambiguity means the ambiguity because of by the words that have more than one meaning. For example, The house is located near the bank.  This sentence has two meanings: the house is near the river or the house is near the bank (a place where people save money). Grammatical ambiguity means the ambiguity because of the grammatical construction that may have more than one meaning. For example, The man hit the girl with a stick. This sentence may mean the man hit the girl using the stick or the man hit the girl who brings a stick.


Comments (12)

Nunung Permata said

at 1:48 pm on Dec 24, 2008

Mr. Depe...
just now i got a mistake. i used my friend's user name to edit about "syntax", i forgot to log out from her user name. we use same computer at the same time..
Please correct this my limited explanation about syntax..
thank you for the understanding...
Have a nice day

Agus D. Priyanto said

at 7:56 pm on Dec 24, 2008

Again, remember to log in with YOUR user name... and LOG OUT when you finish....

Ludmi Andevy said

at 3:24 pm on Dec 27, 2008

could u help me..how to write down it?hehehee...
i've tried,,but it's negative..thanks

Ludmi Andevy said

at 4:06 pm on Dec 27, 2008

i'm understand now..sorry mr. hehehe...

Rosyid Bachtiar said

at 3:54 pm on Jan 8, 2009

would you explain more about
"Function Word"

Novinda said

at 11:02 am on Jan 10, 2009

hii Rosyid...
i want to explain more about "function word"
Function word are the small words that are not concept/words, but which
join these words together (conjunctions),tha lead us into a phrase or clause
(prepositions), create negatives, introduce questions, or modify the timing
of an action when placed before a `verb' (tense particles). There are also
the small words placed before `nouns' to tell us that they are things, and
how many, or how much, of them there are (determinants).
and i want to add the example that Mr Depe give to us in the blog, the example is ‘I want to eat ice cream’.
the word "to" is for combined the verb (eat).If there isn't "to" in those sentence,so it can't make a good sentence/ make a good grammatically sentence....
i think like that......
the superhero on Linguistic "Mr Depe" please cheek again about my information about function word...
if u want to add something about that im so very happy...

Nhiken Sugiyanta said

at 11:11 am on Jan 11, 2009

i want to give example of word order

Sinta has a long black hair.
the word long black hair cannot be change, the word long must be in front of the word black. we cannot say "Sinta has a black long hair".......In English we have a rule how to place the word..it is what we called WORD ORDER.

another example:
a new black car
the two diligent student

that is my addition about word order, if im wrong, please correct it Sir, thanks.

Kustina Indira said

at 6:24 pm on Jan 12, 2009

Good evening Sir, I have already post my interpretation about syntax, hope an additional mark for me

Debora Wulan Yuni said

at 8:06 pm on Jan 12, 2009

In Syntax, there are 4 types of SYNTACTIC STRUCTURE:

a) Structure of Modification: It consists of a Head and a Modifier.
b) Structure of Predication: Their component are Subject and Predicate.
c) Structure of Complementation: It consists of Verbal element and Complement.
d) Structure of Coordination: Consisting of equivalent grammatical units.

how about the further information and example about this?
can anybody help me?
thank you..

Ratna Mustika Wardan said

at 8:17 pm on Jan 13, 2009

i will add the information about study of syntax
in syntax we also study about the ambiguity of sentences.there are two types of the ambiguity lexical ambiguity and gramatical ambiguity.Lexical ambiguity is ambiguity caused by the word that have more than one meaning and grammatical ambiguity is ambiguity because of the grammatical construction may have the one meaning.

for example: His house is located near the bank (lexical ambiguity)
the bank can mean tepi sungai or the name of bank

the man hit the girl with the stick(grammatical ambiguity)
mean: the man hit the girl using the stick or the man hit the girl who bring the stick

thats all my additional information....thank you

Nova Riyanasari said

at 8:40 pm on Jan 13, 2009

Good Evening Sir...
I'm still confused about transformational Generative. Can you help me about this and would you explain more about transformational Generative?

God Bless Us...

Agus D. Priyanto said

at 7:38 am on Jan 14, 2009

@novinda: You're great (about the function words)
@nhiken: What is the different meaning of "long black hair" and "black long hair"? Hmm? Don't they refer to the same thing? The unacceptable word order, probably, is *long black hair, or *hair black long, or *black hair long.
@Ratna: Yes, you're right. See the page above.
@Nova: Do you mean Transformational Grammar? Another name for this is Generative Grammar, pioneered by Chomsky. We don't discuss this very far. You will discuss this in the class of "SYNTAX".

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